Inequality in Citizenship Competences

Citzenship Educaton and Policy in the Netherlands

The Dutch school system is characterized by early educatonal tracking and high school autonomy. This chapter focuses on how this is related to citzenship competences among students. Results of IEA’s Internatonal Civic and Citzenship Educaton Study (ICCS) 2016 study indicate that whereas by itself citzenship competences of students in the Netherlands seem reasonable, they lag behind those of their peers in comparable countries. Furthermore, relatvely large diferences in citzenship competences between students with diferent social backgrounds and between educatonal tracks are documented. These fndings are discussed, with a critcal reflecton on how characteristcs of the Dutch school system may have contributed to this, and suggestons to improve citzenship educaton in the Netherlands are made.

Authors: Anne Bert Dijkstra, Geert ten Dam, and Anke Munniksma.

This publication is a chapter from the book: Influences of the IEA Civic and Citizenship Education Studies: Practice, Policy and Research Across Countries and Regions, by Barbara Malak-Minkiewicz and Judith Torney-Purta (Editors).


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