Cross-classified logistic multilevel models show the importance of taking into account several environmental characteristics and confounders, as social capital effects on the prevalence of morbidity disappear when other area characteristics are taken into account. Stratification by area socio-economic status, shows that the association between environmental characteristics and the prevalence of morbidity is stronger for people living in low SES areas. In low SES areas, green space seems to alleviate effects of air pollution on the prevalence of high blood pressure and diabetes, while the effects of green space and social capital reinforce each other.
Groenewegen, P. P., Zock, J-P., Spreeuwenberg, P., Helbich, M., Hoek, G., Ruijsbroek, A., ... Dijst, M. (2018). Neighborhood social and physical environment and general practitioner assessed morbidity. Health & Place, 49, 68-84.