Bounds and limit theorems for a layered queueing model in electric vehicle charging

Currently, the bottlenecks in EV charging are the ability to charge a battery at a fast rate and the number of charging stations. The authors of this article model and analyze problematic congestion by the use of so-called 'layering queueing networks'.

The rise of electric vehicles (EVs) is unstoppable due to factors such as the decreasing cost of batteries and various policy decisions. These vehicles need to be charged and will therefore cause congestion in local distribution grids in the future. Motivated by this, we consider a charging station with finitely many parking spaces, in which electric vehicles arrive in order to get charged. An EV has a random parking time and a random charging time. Both the charging rate per vehicle and the charging rate possible for the station are assumed to be limited. Thus, the charging rate of uncharged EVs depends on the number of cars charging simultaneously. This model leads to a layered queueing network in which parking spaces with EV chargers have a dual role, of a server (to cars) and a customer (to the grid). We are interested in the performance of the aforementioned model, focusing on the fraction of vehicles that get fully charged. To do so, we develop several bounds and asymptotic (fluid and diffusion) approximations for the vector process which describes the total number of EVs and the number of not fully charged EVs in the charging station, and we compare these bounds and approximations with numerical outcomes.


Aveklouris, A, Vlasiou, M, & Zwart, A.P. (2019). Bounds and limit theorems for a layered queueing model in electric vehicle charging. Queueing Systems, 1–55. doi:10.1007/s11134-019-09616-z

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