The case study area, the climate in 2030, as well as other factors affecting the energy system, were investigated. Energy demand, production, and the mismatch of demand and supply were analysed, and energy calculations were performed with a developed hourly energy balance model. The model showed that Kattenburg could, theoretically, become energetically self-sufficient and fossilfree in 2030 despite doubling its residential occupancy. To do so, thorough energetic renovations and a low-temperature heat network, providing the right quality of energy for heating, are necessary to reduce annual electricity demand with 37 GWh to 12 GWh. With large application of PV modules, approximately 12 GWh of electricity can be produced; therefore, energy neutrality can almost be reached. However, a daily and seasonal mismatch between supply and demand remains. Demand-sidemanagement, as well as daily and seasonal storage measures, are necessary to solve the mismatch between supply and demand. In order to bridge the final gap to self -sufficiency, the energy potential of biomass and small wind turbines need to be utilised. With these measures, Kattenburg could even become energy positive. Due to performance, exchange, conversion and storage losses, the energetic output of the final steps towards full energetic self-sufficiency was found to be significantly reduced while the system’s material and spatial requirements increased. Further research should point out what the most efficient way of providing the final energy demand of the neighbourhood is from an energetic, material, carbon and spatial perspective. Moreover, from these perspectives, it should be investigated on which scale energetic self-sufficiency is most efficient and what the role of the neighbourhood’s energy system is in relation to that scale. The mainly technical and spatial perspective of this study can be used as a reference or as a basis for studies that use other perspectives. It would be necessary to conduct a study on the social dimensions of the energy transition in Kattenburg to complement this study.
Author: Moja Reus