Deposit-refund schemes (DRS) are basically a combination of two instruments: a tax on the purchase of a certain product, and a subsidy on the separate collection of the same product in its after-use stage. They can be efficient policy instruments to encourage reuse and recycling. However, empirical studies on impact of DRS systems on recycling rates are hardly done. In this paper, we applied the Fullerton-Wu model, a partial equilibrium model, to simulate the impact of introducing mandatory DRS for small electric appliances and batteries in the Netherlands.
Linderhof, V., Oosterhuis, F. H., van Beukering, P. J. H., & Bartelings, H. (2019). Effectiveness of deposit-refund systems for household waste in the Netherlands: Applying a partial equilibrium model. Journal of Environmental Management, 232, 842-850.
DOI (behind paywall): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.11.102